Fields of Biomedical Engineering:
Biomedical engineering is the application of engineering principles and design concepts to medicine and biology for health care purposes. Biomedical engineers analyze and design solutions to problems in biology and medicine, with the goal of improving the quality and effectiveness of patient care.
Medical engineering is the application of various engineering techniques to the field of medicine which helps in the development of sophisticated instruments which are used for the prevention, diagnosis, cure, and treatment of various diseases and disorders.
Health Engineering is the design of health and safety principles related to biological systems involving medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, nursing etc. It includes maintenance and improvement of health through diagnosis, preventing or curing diseases by biological applications. Biomedical services, Healthcare quality, and patient safety are the most related aspects of the Biomedical Healthcare engineering system.
A Clinical Engineering is a professional who supports and advances patient care by applying engineering and managerial skills to healthcare technology. (ACCE Definition, 1992)
Clinical Engineering is the application of engineering and technology to analyse and provide solutions for the clinical needs of patients. This is a diverse profession covering many areas of health care and clinical engineers often specialise in one aspect of the filed. Engineering design, research, development, service management and service delivery are common areas of activity for clinical engineers.
Medical electronics is a specialized discipline which integrates engineering with biomedical sciences and clinical practice. Medical electronics technicians, also called biomedical equipment technicians (BMETs), maintain and repair a variety of medical devices, such as defibrillators, imaging devices, and patient monitors. Some technicians specialize in radiology or other laboratory devices.
Bioengineering is the medical application of the engineering principles to the biological systems. The practice of Biomedical Engineering has attained its importance in various fields like Neuro-robotics, Tissue mechanics, Clinical and Neural Systems Engineering. The development of Bioengineering advances biology and medicinal practice in life sciences.
Bioengineering is the Branch of biological applications or medical application of engineering aspects or its equipment’s it can include a wide range of branches like Electrical, Computers, Biology etc.
Biomedical Technology is the applied methodology of engineering principles and advanced technology to the biological systems. Biomedical concerns with the problems related to diseases and their treatment that involve a wide range of activities from medically designed instruments with developed technologies and methodologies. Biomedical material research is mainly focused on biomedical companies and marketing analysis
Medical and clinical conditions of patients under observation and treatment are detected and monitored with the help of biomedical equipment. Sometimes these equipment’s are known as armamentarium. Depending on the usage biomedical equipment’s are of different types, such as biomedical equipment for diagnosis, equipment for monitoring, equipment used for emergency treatment such as life support and so on. Biomedical equipment technicians (BMET) are recruited in medical centres for managing and handling such facilities.
Bio-Medical Device Engineering
Biomedical Device Engineering includes instrumentation for diagnosing, preventing or treating diseases. The study and design of engineering methods without any chemical action in the body can be achieved through the Medical imaging devices. Photodetectors and Biomedical Chromatography are recently obtaining their importance in the science field through its advancements.
Biology + Electronics – The application of electronic devices to living organisms for clinical testing, diagnosis, and therapy. The interactions of increased computing power, advances in prosthetic devices, artificial implants, and systems that blend electronic and biological components.
Biomedical instrumentation involves devices designed and connected together in a scientifically appropriate manner to sense signals and process them for human display and further processing for control, therapy and other purposes. Some instruments are a digital thermometer, electrocardiograph and so on.
Biomaterials and Artificial organs
The substance that has been engineered to engage with biological systems for a medical motive – either a therapeutic or a diagnostic one is known as Biomaterial. The study of biomaterials is called biomaterials science or biomaterials engineering.
Biomaterial is a matter, surface which interacts with biological systems. This can be formed by either from nature or synthesized in the laboratory using a variety of chemical approaches. They are mostly used and or adapted for a medical application.
Biomimetics Is the imitation of the models, systems, and elements of nature for the purpose of solving complex human problems this involves the formation, structure, or function of biologically produced substances and materials and biological mechanisms and processes mainly for the purpose of synthesizing similar products by artificial mechanisms which resemble natural ones.
Biomechanics deals with structure and function of biological systems such as humans, animals, plants, organs, fungi, and cells by means of the methods of mechanics. Which is the branch of physics involving analysis of the actions of forces.
Rehabilitation Technology Is a process were the restoring of the things to its original state like movement of something from one place to other for getting back its original state is rehabilitation. its purpose is to eliminate barriers and enhance opportunities in education, rehabilitation, employment, transportation, independent living and recreation.
Rehabilitation Engineering and Surgical Devices
Rehabilitation engineering technology is the application of engineering sciences and its methodologies to confront problems faced by individuals with disabilities in certain areas like vision, hearing, livelihood, employment. Neural engineering and rehabilitation engineering with the latest research is playing a vital role in the present society. Surgical Devices are the medical instruments used in the surgery performed for specific actions with great precision.
Biomedical services are the services that are provided for the patients regarding diagnosis, treatment, and cure of various diseases and disorders of the patients. These services can be offered by using a no. of sophisticated instruments like MRI, EEG, ECG and many others.
Medical robotics that is also known as mobile robotics are helpful in hospitals in fetching and distributing medicine to the patients, useful in handling patients by lifting and positioning them which are difficult in managing. Robotic surgery, now a day is gaining its importance for the surgical process that is operated and controlled by computer programming methods. Application of Robot laws will mainly be concentrated on its implementation and safety. Some of the advancing methods in the upcoming generation are Bio-robotics, Neuro-robotics, Surgical Robotics and Surgical Planning
Bioprocessing is a word were the research, development, manufacturing, and commercialization of products prepared from or used by biological systems, including food, feed, biopharmaceutical, and cosmetics. Mainly it’s a process were it involves the living cells or its components for desired output.
Biomedical sensors are the devices that detect records and transmit the information related to a physiological process or change. Radiation safety and novel radiation based therapeutic agents can be detected by these Biosensors. These devices use the biological material to identify and monitor the presence of different chemicals in a substance.
Bio-Medical imaging is the work of creating visual representations of the body interior parts for clinical analysis and medical intervention, along with a visual representation of the function of some organs. Medical imaging includes a database of normal anatomy and physiology to make it possible to identify abnormalities.
Bio-transportation is the basic research related to a molecule, organelle, and cell function, the design and operation of biomedical devices, along with drug and gene delivery, biological signal transduction, and tissue engineering.
Anatomy and Physiology
The unit of biology related to the research of the organism’s body, structure and their parts is called Anatomy, Whereas Physiology deals with the working of living organisms. They focus on the chemical or physical functions of organisms, biomolecules, and cells inside a living system.
Biomedical Imaging and Biosignals
Biomedical imaging is the process of performing visual activities, representing the interior organs of the body for medical diagnosis by identifying the abnormal activities in the functioning system. Biosignal processing is the method in creating signals for bio-measurement mode by calculating the mathematical formulae. The physiological instruments that measure the human activities at a specific time can be carried out using this process.
Biomedical signal processing
The surveillance of physiological activities of organisms, such as gene and protein sequences, neural and cardiac rhythms along with tissue and organ images is known as Bio-medical signal processing. It directs in getting significant information using biomedical signals. By the help of biomedical signal processing, biologists were finding new biology and physicians can supervise evident illnesses
Biomedical optics and Lasers
Photonic technology in medicine has brought a great change in many clinical works and has the potential to affect health care in large extent. Optical spectra are relayed on the absorption, fluorescence, or Raman scattering, which provides biochemical information since molecular conformation is related to it.
Biomedical Science is a combination branch of applied sciences which involves both the portion of natural science and formal science for the development of innovations, new techniques in case of the healthcare issue.
It focuses on how biomolecules, organs, organ systems, cells, and organisms will perform their chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.
Bio-technology broadly refers to the application of engineering and technology principles to the domain of living or biological systems. Usually, the inclusion of the term biomedical refers to a principle emphasis on problems related to human health and diseases with the help of technology.
Bioinformatics and Genomics
The hybrid of computer technology to the management of biological information is known as Bioinformatics. The biological and genetic information is used to be gathered, stored, analyzed and integrated by using computers, further used for drug discovery and development related to genes.
The understanding and manipulating cell structure-function relationships are known as Cellular engineering. It includes the principles and methods of engineering along with problems of cell and molecular biology of both a basic and applied nature-Cellular Interactions
Biomolecular Engineering is the interface of molecular biology, chemical engineering, and biophysical chemistry— whose purpose is developing novel molecular tools, materials, and approaches that are the focal point of applied and basic research within academics, medicine, and industry.
Bio-nanotechnology is the system of engineering principles with relation to molecular functions and nanomechanisms. Biomedical Nanotechnology is the application of technical aspects to a biological process that includes Nanomedicines, Tissue Growing Nanostructures, Cell interactions with nanoparticles etc. Revolutionary opportunities and future scope of nanotechnology are gaining its utmost importance in Nano-life sciences.
Tissue Engineering Development
Tissue Engineering is that the study of the expansion of latest connective tissues, or organs, from cells and a collagen scaffold to supply a totally useful organ for implantation back to the donor host. This system can enable organs to be big from implantation (rather than transplantation) and therefore free from immunological rejection. The beginning of any tissue-engineered organ is the harvesting of small amounts of tissue from the future recipient of the Tissue Engineered organ.
Bioreactors is a vessel were chemical process is carried were we observe either organism or biochemically active substances derived from such oraganisms.
Computational Biological Systems
Computational Biological systems known as Biomedical Computing is the study of complex biological systems related to genetic sequences, DNA studies, and protein folding mechanism. It also includes the study of Bioinformatics, Molecular evolution, and phylogenetic modeling and human genome project
Specialized Fields of Biomedical
As a biomedical scientist in microbiology you will study micro-organisms such as bacteria, fungi and parasites which cause disease. You will identify these organisms and establish the antibiotic treatment required to kill them therefore stopping the disease. Diseases diagnosed include meningitis, tuberculosis and food poisoning.
In clinical chemistry biomedical scientists analyse blood and other biological materials to help the diagnosis of diseases, for example diabetes. They also carry out toxicological studies, test kidney and liver functions and help to monitor therapies.
In this discipline you will identify blood groups for blood donation, ensure the correct grouped blood is matched to the patient due to receive donation and make certain there is enough blood available in case of emergency such as road traffic accidents, operations and cancer treatments.
Haematology is the study of blood. In this discipline you will be involved with the formation, composition, functions and diseases of the blood. Some of the diseases diagnosed in haematology are leukaemia, malaria and anaemia.
In histology, tissue samples are studied microscopically to establish the cause of illness. Tissue may be taken during surgery or at post mortem. Diseases such as cancer are diagnosed by looking for abnormal features in tissue cells.
This discipline is best known for its work in screening cervical smears, but it also provides a non-gynaecological service. Like histology, specialised techniques are used to prepare and study samples of cellular materials.
Virology is the study of viruses and the disease caused by them such as German measles, HIV and chickenpox. You will also be involved in monitoring the effects of vaccines.
scientists in immunology deal with the conditions of the body’s immune system
and its role in infectious diseases, parasitic infestations, allergies, tumour
growth, tissue grafts and organ transplants. Their work is particularly
important in the monitoring and treatment of AIDS.
However, biomedical science itself is an evolving science moving into new areas such as cytogenetics and molecular biology.
Biomedical scientists can complete the Institute’s specialist portfolio which recognises your training, skills and knowledge gained in the two years post-registration. Completion of the portfolio and successful assessment will lead to you being awarded a Specialist Diploma in the disciplines listed above.
Biomedical scientists go onto build on their generic knowledge with master’s degrees, professional qualifications and professional doctorates. These optional qualifications help you to develop advanced specialist skills or adopt senior roles and responsibilities. Consultant biomedical scientists are those with highest qualifications and expertise who have reached the top of their profession.
Biomedical scientists can also become ‘Chartered Scientist’ which is an internationally recognized benchmark of quality and excellence.