SKGK – Session 17 – Topic: Pacemaker (Answers)

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Pacemaker is a electronic stimulator which stimulate myocardium to depolarize the heart.

Pacemaker keeps the heart from beating too slow
✔ Pacemaker restricts the heart from beating too fast
✔Pacemakers are used as a temporary pacing or permanent pacing for the following abnormal indications

🔜Sinus node Dysfunction 🔜Sick sinus Syndrome
🔜Sinus bradycardia
🔜sinus arrest
🔜Sympomatic sinus
🔜SA block

✔ Internal Pacemaker          ✔Externalnal pacemaker
✔Asynchronous pacemaker(Fixed rate Pacemaker)

✔Synchronous pacemaker –(1)Atrial synchronous pacemaker,
(2) ventricular synchronous pacemaker,
(3)Demand type pacemakers, (4) Rate responsive pacemaker

✔ Implantable Pacemaker:
(1) Fixed rate pacemaker,
(2) Demand pacemaker,
(3) R wave triggered pacemaker
(4) Ventricular inhibited pacemaker
(5)Atrial triggered pacemaker
(6) Single chamber pacemakers
(7) Dual Chamber Pacemakers.

✔Sinus node Dysfunction ✔Sick sinus Syndrome
✔ Sinus bradycardia
✔ sinus arrest
✔Sympomatic sinus bradycardia
✔SA block
✔ Asymptomatic 1st and 2nd degree AV block.

SA(Sino-atrial) node is a natural pulse generator to trigger the heart.

To provide electrical pulse to hear.
It helps to depolarize and depolarise heart naturally..

✔pacemakers gives pulses intermittently.
✔pacemaker have timing circits to set time interval between pacing pulses
✔pacemaker have feedback circutits to apply  the output pulses when lasts of natural pulse.
✔Synchronous pacemaker provides pacing pulses as per the heart demand.
✔Synchronous pacemakers are produce rates ranges from 70 to 150 bpm
✔ Synchronous pacemakers  are produce two types of output pulses that are constant voltageor constant current pulses.

✔Contineous pacing cause to serious complications .
✔Implantable pacemaker needs surgery when it not working.

🔟 Pacemaker life is approx 5 – 10 year and depends type of Pacemaker is used,types of batteries are used..

1⃣1⃣ Batteries used for external Pacemakers.
✔Lithium iodide battery,
✔Zink mercuric Oxide batteries,
✔Nickel Cadmium batterries, ✔rechargeble batteries.
2.Batteried used for internal Pacemakers
✔Nuclear powered plutonium-238 batteries
✔Mercury powered batteries,
✔Biofuel cells,
✔Biomechanical power genaration sources,
✔External power sources using Telemetry.

Thanks to all.


A pacemaker is a small device that’s placed in the chest or abdomen to help control abnormal heart rhythms. This device uses electrical pulses to prompt the heart to beat at a normal rate.

Pacemakers are used to treat arrhythmias (ah-RITH-me-ahs). Arrhythmias are problems with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat. During an arrhythmia, the heart can beat too fast, too slow, or with an irregular rhythm.

A heartbeat that’s too fast is called tachycardia (TAK-ih-KAR-de-ah). A heartbeat that’s too slow is called bradycardia (bray-de-KAR-de-ah).

During an arrhythmia, the heart may not be able to pump enough blood to the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue (tiredness), shortness of breath, or fainting. Severe arrhythmias can damage the body’s vital organs and may even cause loss of consciousness or death.

A pacemaker can relieve some arrhythmia symptoms, such as fatigue and fainting. A pacemaker also can help a person who has abnormal heart rhythms resume a more active lifestyle.

Presented by:-
3rd year

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